Meaning of the Word Paranormal
Electromagnetic Spectrum of Light
The Ghost in The Machine
The Philip Experiment
Quantum Theory - Quick Overview
Wormhole (Under Construction)
Gravitational Field Distortion (Under Construction)
Quantum Theory, in physics, description of the particles that makeup matter and how they interact with each other and with energy. Quantum theory explains in principle how to calculate what will happen in any experiment involving physical or biological systems, and how to understand how our world works. The name “quantum theory” comes from the fact that the theory describes the matter and energy in the universe in terms of single indivisible units called quanta (singular quantum). Quantum theory is different from classical physics. Classical physics is an approximation of the set of rules and equations in quantum theory. Classical physics accurately describes the behavior of matter and energy in the everyday universe. For example,classical physics explains the motion of a car accelerating or of a ball flying through the air. Quantum theory, on the other hand, can accurately describe the behavior of the universe on a much smaller scale, that of atoms and smaller particles. The rules of classical physics do not explain the behavior of matter and energy on this small scale. Quantum theory is more general than classical physics, and in principle, it could be used to predict the behavior of any physical, chemical, or biological system. However, explaining the behavior of the everyday world with quantum theory is too complicated to be practical.
Quantum theory not only specifies new rules for describing the universe but also introduces new ways of thinking about matter and energy. The tiny particles that quantum theory describes do not have defined locations, speeds, and paths like objects described by classical physics. Instead, quantum theory describes positions and other properties of particles in terms of the chances that the property will have a certain value. For example, it allows scientists to calculate how likely it is that a particle will be in a certain position at a certain time.
Quantum description of particles allows scientists to understand how particles combine to form atoms.Quantum description of atoms helps scientists understand the chemical and physical properties of molecules, atoms, and subatomic particles. Quantum theory enabled scientists to understand the conditions of the early universe,how the Sun shines, and how atoms and molecules determine the characteristics of the material that they make up. Without quantum theory, scientists could not have developed nuclear energy or the electric circuits that provide the basis for computers.
Quantum theory describes all of the fundamental forces—except gravitation—that physicists have found in nature. The forces that quantum theory describes are the electrical, the magnetic, the weak, and the strong. Physicists often refer to these forces as interactions, because the forces control the way particles interact with each other. Interactions also affect spontaneous changes in isolated particles.
The meaning of paranormal is not synonymous with the meaning of ghost or haunted
In order to understand what paranormal activity is we must first define what“paranormal” means. The word “para” itself was once a prefix in the Greek language meaning “similar to” or “near to” however, in Latin “para” means“outside of,” “against” or “beyond.” In today’s English it is generally used as a prefix in conjunction with other words such as paramedic, paralegal and, of course, paranormal. The word “normal” simply denotes an “average,” “standard”or “usual condition or characteristic.” When the prefix and the word are put together we find that we have a totally different meaning for the two, that being “paranormal.” Now, we must look within our own mind to determine the interpretation of the word. Do we agree with the original Greek where it would mean “near to what is normal” where the events, although not fully comprehended or understood, still fall within the natural laws of the universe or do we interpret the word as the more sinister Latin meaning of “outside of, beyond or against what is normal” where the events seem to subvert the natural laws as we know them?
Now that we have defined, at least in a basic sense, what the word paranormal means we must now be able to determine what paranormal activity is. To do this we will have to employ our sense of logical deduction (common sense). Although this seems as if it would be the first logical step to determine what is paranormal and what is not I must sadly say that many forgo this step and call everything that they see in a photo an anomaly. A serious investigator would, by process of elimination, rule out all potential causes that are obvious, logical and within reason until there is no other method to explain the phenomenon that has been witnessed. How do we do this? We must first be able to determine what paranormal activity is not.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum of Light
Light, electricity, and magnetism are manifestations of the same thing called electromagnetic radiation. This energy also comes in many forms that are not detectable with our eyes such as infrared (IR), radio, X-rays,ultraviolet (UV), and gamma rays.
Gamma rays are the most energetic form of electromagnetic radiation and areproduced in nuclear reactions.
The form of electromagnetic radiation your eyes can detect is called``visible'' or ``optical''. Astronomers have only recently (within the past few decades) been able to use the other forms of electromagnetic radiation or light. Every time technology has been developed to detect another form of light, a revolution in our understanding of the universe has occurred. The visible (to the eye) band is the smallest in wavelength and energy
There are some general properties shared by all forms of electromagnetic radiation:
It can travel through empty space. Other types of waves need some sort of medium to move through:water waves need liquid water and sound waves need some gas, liquid, or solid material to be heard.
The speed of light is constant in space. All forms of light have the same speed of 299,800 kilometers/second in space (often abbreviated as c). From highest energy to lowest energy the forms of light are Gamma rays, X-rays,Ultraviolet, Visible, Infrared, Radio. (Microwaves are high-energy radio-waves.)
3. A wavelength of light is defined similarly to that of water waves distance between crests or between troughs.
Besides using wavelength to describe the form of light, you can also use the frequency, the number of crests of the wave that pass by a point every second. Frequency is measured in units of hertz (Hz): 1hertz = 1 wave crest/second. For light there is a simple relation between the speed of light (c), wavelength (), and frequency (f). Since the wavelength is in the bottom of the fraction, the frequency is inversely proportional to the wavelength. This means that light with a smaller wavelength has a higher (larger) frequency. Light with a longer wavelength has a lower (smaller) frequency.
At the beginning of the 20th century Max Planck (lived 1858--1947)suggested that atoms can absorb and emit energy in only discrete chunks (calledquanta). This quantum behavior of atoms could explain thedrop-off of a continuous spectrum's shape at the short wavelength end. A few years after Planck's discovery discovered that the quantum of energy was not due to the atoms but, rather, aproperty of the energy itself. You can consider light as packets of energy called photons. A photon is a particle of electromagnetic radiation. Bizarre though it may be, light is both a particle and a wave.Whether light behaves like a wave or like a particle depends on how the lightis observed (it depends on the experimental setup)! Light can also behave as a particle and a wave at the same time.
The type of light produced by an object will depend on its temperature. So let's discuss slightly what ``temperature'' is. Temperature is a measure of the random motion (or energy) of a group of particles. Higher temperature (T) means more random motion (or energy). A natural scale would have zero motion at zero degrees (absolute zero). However it has been recently discovered the there is in fact motion at absolute zero. This scale is the Kelvin scale. It scales exactly like the Celsius system, but it is offset by 273 degrees.
Theories on Infrasound and its Effect on Humans
Webster's Dictionary defines infrasonic, or infrasound, as "1: having or relating to a frequency below the audibility range of the human ear. 2: utilizing or produced by infrasonic waves or vibrations."
The Good and the Bad News
Infrasound can be especially dangerous, due to its strong vibrations, or oscillations. Infrasound waves hug the ground, travel for long distances without losing strength, and are unstoppable. Not much amplitude is needed to produce negative effects in the human body, and even mild infrasound exposure requires several hours, or even days, to reverse symptoms
Man-made structures, such as engines, cars, buses, trains, motorcycles, and airplanes also produce infrasound. John Cody also noted that pilots exposed to infrasonic vibrations of jet chassis experience a reduction in "vision, speech, intelligence, orientation, equilibrium, ability to accurately discern situations, and make reasonable decisions."
Depending on the pitch, infrasound can cause physical pressure, fear, disorientation, negative physical and mental symptoms.
Please note there are varying degrees in the infrasound range and those that cause the most negative and damaging effects is not a common occurrence.
Infrasound disrupts the normal functioning of the middle and inner ear, leading to nausea, imbalance, impaired equilibrium, immobilization, and disorientation. Exposure to even mild doses of infrasound can lead to illness.
The Infrasound phenomenon revealed that sound waves of this low frequency may appear rather frequently under natural conditions. Infrasound arises when strong gusts of wind clash with chimneys or towers. These heavy basses penetrate even through very thick walls. Such sound waves start rumbling in tunnel-shaped corridors. This is the reason why people often come across ghosts in long serpentine corridors of ancient castles looking like tunnels. Strong winds are quite typical of Great Britain.
Long pipe organs, such as those found in churches and cathedrals produce infrasound. In one UK study, the extreme bass frequencies instilled strange feelings at a concert hall. Effects were "extreme sense of sorrow, coldness, anxiety, and even shivers down the spine." (source; Organ Music Instills Religious Feelings,' by Jonathan Amos, 9/8/2003)
Some boom cars are equipped with a device known as a burp button. These devices generate large amplitude pressure/low frequency noise. When the burp button is used, it activates a low-band pass-filter which forces all of the amplifier's power through the sub-woofer speakers at frequencies lower than a certain number of Hertz. At extremely low frequencies, it becomes infrasound. Thus you FEEL the blast of noise, as well as hear it. Which may explain why some humans like booming sub-woofers in their vehicles and/or homes, and it is not just a “cool and popular” status meaning as we as a society have come to believe.
Infrasonic vibrations, though harmful, can be pleasantly stimulating in mild levels. The effects of brief, mild exposure can give a feeling of invigoration for hours. While a person may FEEL invigorated and euphoric, his body is being subjected to an elevated heart rate, elevated blood pressure, a release of endorphins, and the "fight or flight" adrenaline response. Feeling the effects of high-intensity/low-frequency sound can actually become an addiction, partially due to the release of endorphins in the body. See below - 12 Cycles Per Second
12 Cycles Per Second (Hz) - Walt Disney and his artists accidentally experienced infrasound on one occasion. A cartoon sound effect was slowed from 60 cycles per second to 12 cycles per second via a tape-editing machine and was amplified through the theater system. The resulting tone, though brief in duration, produced in the entire crowd nausea that lingered for several days. 100 Cycles Per Second (Hz) - At this level, a person experiences irritation, "mild nausea, giddiness, skin flushing, and body tingling." Following this, a person undergoes "vertigo, anxiety, extreme fatigue, throat pressure, and respiratory dysfunction." (source; the Sonic Weapon of Vladimir Gavreau, by Gerry Vassilatos)
Still a lot of Theories About Infrasound in Question
Scientists call the idea into question. Physicists studying effect of infrasound upon the human body say that volunteers participating in their experiments complain of weariness, high pressure in the eyes and in the ears, but never mention hallucinations or ghosts. At that, physicists say that drivers also have no optical illusions when cars overcome the air drag at a really high speed and the level of infrasound waves is very high.
Infrasound Toxicological Summary, November 2001 - "When male volunteers were exposed to simulated industrial infrasound of 5 and 10 Hz and levels of 100 and 135 dB for 15 minutes, feelings of fatigue, apathy, and depression, pressure in the ears, loss of concentration, drowsiness, and vibration of internal organs were reported. In addition, effects were found in the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and the respiratory system. Synchronization phenomena were enhanced in the left hemisphere. Visual motor responses to stimuli were prolonged, and the strength of the effect was reduced. Heart rate was increased during the initial minutes of exposure. Depression of the encephalic hemodynamics with decreased venous flow from the skull cavity was observed. Heart muscle contraction strength was reduced. Respiration rate was significantly reduced after the first minute of exposure."
Human Reactions to Infrasound
20 Hz is considered the normal low frequency limit of human hearing. When pure sine waves are reproduced under ideal conditions and at very high volume, a human listener will be able to identify tones as low as 12 Hz. Below 10 Hz it is possible to perceive the single cycles of the sound, along with a sensation of pressure at the eardrums.
The dynamic range of the auditory system decreases with decreasing frequency. This compression can be seen in the equal-loudness-level contours, and it implies that a slight increase in level can change the perceived loudness from barely audible to loud. Combined with the natural spread in thresholds within a population, it may have the effect that a very low frequency sound which is inaudible to some people may be loud to others.
Infrasound has been known to cause feelings of awe or fear in humans. Since it is not consciously perceived, it can make people feel vaguely that supernatural events are taking place.
Some film soundtracks make use of infrasound to produce unease or disorientation in the audience. Irreversible is one such movie.
The Ghost in the Machine
Research by Vic Tandy, a lecturer at Coventry University, suggested that the frequency 19 Hz was responsible for many ghost sightings. He was working late one night alone in a supposedly haunted laboratory at Warwick, when he felt very anxious and could detect a grey blob out of the corner of his eye. When he turned to face it, there was nothing.
The following day, he was working on his fencing foil, with the handle held in a vice. Although there was nothing touching it, the blade started to vibrate wildly. Further investigation led him to discover that the extraction fan was emitting a frequency of 18.98 Hz, very close to the resonant frequency of the eye (given as 18 Hz in NASA Technical Report 19770013810). This was why he saw a ghostly figure — it was an optical illusion caused by his eyeballs resonating. The room was exactly half a wavelength in length, and the desk was in the centre, thus causing a standing wave which was detected by the foil.
Tandy investigated this phenomenon further and wrote a paper entitled The Ghost in the Machine. He carried out a number of investigations at various sites believed to be haunted, including the basement of the Tourist Information Bureau next to Coventry Cathedral and Edinburgh Castle.
The Philip Phenomenon - A Made In Canada Ghost
Philip was an aristocratic Englishman living in the middle 1600s at the time of Oliver Cromwell. He had been
a supporter of the king and was a Catholic. He was married to a beautiful but cold and frigid wife, Dorothea,
the daughter of a neighboring nobleman. One day, when out riding on the boundaries of his estates, Philip
came across a gypsy encampment and saw there a beautiful dark-eyed, raven-haired gypsy girl, Margo, and
fell instantly in love with her.
He brought her back secretly to live in the gate-house near the stables of Diddington Manor - his family
home. For some time he kept his love-nest secret, but eventually Dorothea, realizing he was keeping
someone else there, found Margo, and accused her of witchcraft and of stealing her husband. Philip was too
scared of losing his reputation and his possessions to protest at the trial of Margo, and she was convicted of
witchcraft and burned at the stake. Philip subsequently was stricken with remorse that he had not tried to
defend Margo and used to pace the battlements of Diddingtonin despair. Finally one morning his body was
found at the foot of the battlements where he had cast himself in a fit of agony and remorse.
This of course is a very tragic tale that contains many elements normally associated with reports of historical
ghosts. It is however a complete fabrication. The true story of 'Philip' is actually a remarkable experiment that
was conducted in the early 1970's by The Toronto Society Of Psychical Research. The purpose of the
experiment was to see if a wholly fictitious historical character - ghost could in fact manifest itself through the
groups efforts of concentration on the bogus data.
Dr. A.R.G Owen, a member of the Department For Preventative Medicine and Biostatistics at the University
of Toronto and psychic researcher who specialized in poltergeist cases was the group's scientific advisor. He
is quoted in the introduction to 'Conjuring Up Philip' assaying, 'It was essential to their purpose that Philip be
a totally fictitious character. Not merely a figment of the imagination but clearly and obviously so, with a
biography full of historical errors.
The opening paragraph of this article is the basic storyline that was concocted by one of the group's
members named only as 'Sue' - a former nurse with the Canadian Armed Forces. Further details including a
sketch were added on as the group discussed and immersed themselves in Philip's invented biographical
data. Contradictions such as Philip being reincarnated several times yet also being seen walking the
battlements of Diddington every century or so were carefully woven into the story. And while a Diddington all
really does exist in Warwickshire, England the group made sure that the real location's history in no way
resembled Philip's home. In essence the group sought to create a 'collective hallucination' of Philip through
subscribing to a common mental picture of him and his surroundings. They meditated on his appearance, his
food preferences, and mostly his 'feelings' towards his wife Dorothea and his gypsy lover Margo.
The experiment went on for months with absolutely no success. The group would sit around a table and
merely concentrate - much like the spiritualists of the 19thcentury. And then one day it just happened. There
was a knock on the table, which at first was felt more than heard. All of the group's eight members felt the
vibration. This was followed by a number of distinct knocks that were in fact heard and felt. Skeptical at first,
the group felt that these knocks were perhaps inadvertently the result of one of the group's participants. They
quickly changed their minds when the table itself began to move around the room. When a startled member
asked aloud, 'I wonder whether Philip is doing this,' a loud knock was heard as if in response. Philip, a made
in Canada ghost had finally arrived.
The group devised a plan in which one knock would signify a yes and two knocks would indicate a no. Soon
after they began enjoying 'spirited' conversation with Philip. This 'entity' that they apparently conjured up
'exhibited likes and dislikes, had strong views on some subjects and was hesitant on others.' They
questioned 'him' on his personal life. And once when an apparently too personal question was asked in
regards to 'his' wife Dorothea loud scratching sounds were heard.
It was noted that the ghostly sounds and movements of the table seemed closely related to the thoughts of
the group. If they were in agreement to what an answer should be the resulting 'yes' knock was quick and
loud. If there were doubts amongst the group's members the result would be a corresponding hesitation in
As their experiment progressed the participants would engage in teasing and joking with Philip. The table
movements and knocks became more frequent and it was reported that the table would occasionally rush up
as if in greeting to late comers and even trap members in the corner of the room! Philip apparently was the
cause of lights turning off and on by themselves and other strange anomalies as well.
The experiment captured the attention of local media with group and 'ghost' featured on the CBC television
show 'Man Alive' as well as other talk shows of the day.
A 16mm movie was produced by the group in 1974 entitled Philip: the Imaginary Ghost. It explains how the
experiment was conceived, and what actually happened,showing tables movements and actual raps.
In conclusion the experimenters succeeded far beyond their wildest expectations. However, in the end they
were never able to prove the 'how' and the 'why' behind Philip's manifestation. Was Philip a direct result of
the group's collective subconscious or perhaps did they conjure an actual entity that simply latched onto the
story' We may never be able to actually answer these questions in regards to this particular case. However,
the Philip phenomenon remains not only a groundbreaking experiment, but an important historical account of
para-research efforts in Canada.
Further experiments with a different group were carried out in 1974, the story used with these was of a
French Canadian girl by the name of Lilith who went to France during WWII and became a member of the
French Resistance. She was however, caught and executed as a spy.The Lilith experiments saw similar results
to the Philip one in just 5 weeks. Perhaps this was due to the fact that the Owens were able to formulate
shortcuts in method based on the earlier experiments and the new group was able to sit in with the Philip
group on an individual basis. During the 1974 Christmas party held by the organization members of both the
Philip and Lilith groups got together and in jest called out, 'Is anybody there'' They received a knock in response
and in further jest they asked, 'Are you Father Christmas'' Reportedly a long conversation with Santa Claus ensued!
According to the Owens this last episode 'illustrates the wonderful child-like approach taken to the phenomena and
the fact that in these situations you get what you expect.
Psychic Mysteries Of The North - A.R.G Owen (c) 1975
Conjuring Up Philip - Iris Owen and Margaret Sparrow (c)1976
Into The Unknown - Will Bradbury (c) 1981